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Question Number: 32140

Law 12 - Fouls and Misconduct 1/5/2018

RE: Rec High School

Apple of Las Vegas, NV UnitedStates asks...

This question is a follow up to question 32058

I have no issue with a corner kick here but dont think the LOTG limits PIADM to a foul against an opponent. Is it ever actually called a "foul" vs "misconduct" or "infraction"? The list of IFK offenses (unlike DFKs) does not specify they are all against opponents, and the definition of PIADM specificly says it threatens "someone" (not just an opponent), "(including the player himself)". Having said that, I cant remember a time blowing the whistle when someone endangered a teammate, but I suppose I could see myself blowing the whistle for safety without really caring if it was against an opponent or not, at least in youth matches.

Answer provided by Referee Joe Manjone

As indicated in NFHS Rule 12-6, Dangerous Play is an act that an official considers likely to cause injury to any player - an opponent, a teammate or self. It is a foul that results in an indirect kick for the opponent.

Unlike you, I have had many instances of dangerous play against a teammate or the player themselves. Most have been high kicks or low heading of the ball where the action put a player in danger.

I hope this helps and that you have a very successful high school officiating year.

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Answer provided by Referee Joe McHugh

This is one area where the NF High School Rules and FIFA / IFAB Laws differ.
NFHS rules state that ' a player shall not participate in dangerous play, which is an act an official considers likely to cause injury to any player. This includes playing in such a manner which could cause injury to self or another player (opponent or teammate)'*Teammate is listed in brackets

In FIFA games the Laws state that an indirect free kick is awarded if a player plays in a dangerous manner. Full stop. It is assumed based on implicit knowledge that PIADM infringements have to involve opponents not team mates. That knowledge was based on the conditions for a foul which required that the ball was in play, it was on the FOP and it was against an opponent. On the FOP has been removed in the amended Laws while the other two remain. Over the years I have seen plenty of teammates go for the same ball in error, make heavy contact with each other and if an opponent was involved it would be a clear foul to one or the other. As it is two team mates it is an unfortunate coming together with no possible offence and play continuing if there is no serious injury. That is in a contact situation so in a no contact PIADM it is not also considered. A goalkeeper diving at the feet of a team mate makes a decision that his team mate is not going to play in the way that is going to injuries him.
Of course safety is paramount and a word with the players would suffice to be more careful when playing the ball
In the situation described which was a FIFA game I did not read into it that there was any PIADM involved. The only decision in my opinion was a corner kick. I even think that in a NFHS game awarding an IDFK in such a position compared to a corner would be the 'best' decision for the game. A word with the GK to be more careful might suffice if it was a concern.

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Answer provided by Referee Richard Dawson

Hi Apple,
actually as a high school referee in the USA you are correct that PIADM CAN in fact be against a team mate . This is different then FIFA/IFAB LOTG but it IS a distinction unknown by many! Yet In this case do you really have time to prevent the kick out by seeing the potential for PIADM as this is likely a miscommunication panic situation as a mistaken clearance. I suspect the ball is cleared before you have time to whistle but you are not incorrect to consider the safety of all players as your number one priority!
Remember by awarding an INDFK for this, if inside the PA you are giving the opposition a pretty decent scoring opportunity out of nothing they earned!

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Answer provided by Referee Peter Grove

Hi Apple,
I'm not sure if you're asking for an answer based on the IFAB's Laws of the Game or NFHS rules as you mention both.

From a LotG perspective, let's take the terminology first. The laws do not use the term 'infraction' and while there is a whole section entitled 'Fouls and Misconduct' neither term is defined so there is some confusion (not to say disagreement) over what the difference is exactly between the two. The only related term that is defined is 'offence' which the Laws say is, ''An action which breaks/violates the Laws of the Game.''

So the most we can say is that PIADM is an offence. Again, if sticking with the Laws of the Game, my understanding of the meaning of the law is that while it does say it involves the risk of injury to someone, which can include the player themself, it is intended primarily for situations where opponents are challenging for the ball and I have never seen it used for collisions between team mates. As my comrades have pointed out however, the situation is different under NFHS rules.

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